Written by @Rui, investor and researcher of SevenX.

Acknowledgement to Lukas, co-founder of Safe, Noam, engineering lead of Alchemy, Kurt and Konrad, co-founders of Rhinestone, Arnav, investor of HashKey.



The shift from Externally Owned Accounts (EOA) to Smart Contract Accounts(SCA) is gaining momentum and has been embraced by many enthusiasts, including Vitalik himself. Despite the excitement, the adoption of SCA is not as widespread as EOAs. The key among them are the challenges posed by bear markets, the concern of migration, signing issue, gas overheads, and most critically, engineering difficulties.

The most significant advantage of Account Abstractions (AA) is the ability to use code to customize functionality. However, one major engineering challenge is the non-interoperability of AA functionalities, and the fragmentation hampers integration and opens the door to vendor lock-in. Additionally, ensuring security while simultaneously upgrading and composing features can be intricate.

Enter Modular Account Abstraction, as a subset of the broader AA movement, this innovative approach can separate smart accounts from their custom functions. The goal is to create a modular structure to develop secure, seamlessly integrated wallets with diverse functionalities. In the future, it can realize a free “app store” for smart contract accounts that sets wallets and dApps free from building features but focuses on user experience.

After reading this article, readers will gain insights about:

  1. What is Modular Account Abstraction
  2. How does the account interact with modules